[210] Cave paintings made 14,000 years ago found in Spain


Cave paintings made 14,000 years ago found in Spain Archeologists searching an underground cave have found carvings of horses, deer, goats and bison that date back 14,000 years. It is one of the oldest discoveries of art drawings in the world. The drawings give clues to how prehistoric civilizations lived: the horses had no saddle or reins, and the bison drawings showed stab wounds from spears.

saddle (noun): 鞍
reins (noun): 手綱
bison (noun): バイソン


Scientist J. Craig Venter made a series of appearances in Japan recently, speaking at the Kyoto University – Imamori Foundation Prize Symposium, and at the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development in Tokyo. Venter started his medical career as a young medic in Vietnam, and went on to lead a genome project that sequenced the human genome. His research team has also created what is believed to be the first synthetic organism. Currently he is working on research to explore why organisms age and if the process can be reversed. He is often mentioned as a future candidate for the Nobel Prize.

genome project (noun): ゲノムプロジェクト
synthetic (adjective): 合成



Mei: Have you been studying for the scientific English proficiency test?

Toru: Yes, but so far I have been doing it in a halfhearted way. I’m only studying a bit on the weekends.

Mei: If you want to pass the test, you should get serious, and study at least one hour every day, even during the work week.

Explanation: A “halfhearted” effort means that you are only trying a little. It is like trying with only half of your heart and mind.

halfhearted (adjective): 生ぬるい・煮え切らない


latent phase

Dr. Yong: We have checked your test results, and I have to tell you that you might have a serious disease.

Mr. Evans: A disease? What are you talking about? I feel fine.

Dr. Yong: You might feel fine now because the disease is in a latent phase. But the illness might become clear in the coming months.

Explanation: When word “latent” means that something is not fully developed. When we say a disease is in a “latent phase” we mean that it is not active now, but might become stronger later.

latent: 潜在的


Bring it under control

Hello Mr. Peterson:

Our energy bill is too high. Some of the employees are using the air conditioning with the windows open, or leaving their computers on during their lunch breaks. We need to look at our energy use and bring it under control. Please have a meeting with the staff and clearly explain our policy.

Explanation: The term “bring it under control ” means to stop any waste and reduce any unneeded costs.

under control: 制御下